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Mastering 4D Seismic

Two day training course
conducted by Ian Jack

To purchase multiple places, please phone our office on +44 207 993 5991

Thursday, November 6, 2014
The Geological Society

This is an intensive two day course covering all aspects of time-lapse seismic (4D) methodology so that attendees can participate in any aspect of 4D technology.

The course gives a perspective on the development of 4D seismic from the 1980's to its present use in mature areas. Linkages with Reservoir Engineering are highlighted and a (necessarily brief) coverage of rock and fluid physics is included. It defines feasibility studies and describes current best practice, and the operational requirements for successful implementation of time-lapse technology. There is a brief mention of CO2 injection monitoring. The economics of 4D are examined, together with industry trends and developments. A range of case histories will be described to illustrate the practical use of the methodology.

Course run by Ian Jack

Ian is a Physics graduate of the University of St. Andrews. He began his career in 1968 with Texas Instruments (GSI) as a field service engineer, and later as a seismic processor before moving into software development in Dallas, Texas. After 10 years with TI he joined the Technical Service Division of BP Exploration in London, and became manager of their geophysical operations in 1982. Other assignments included subsurface R&D manager, and eventually as BP’s so-called “distinguished advisor” on geophysics he was responsible for new technology and subsurface strategy during and subsequent to the Amoco and Arco acquisitions. He championed the ocean bottom technology and was the instigator of BP’s first at-scale “Permanent Reservoir Monitoring” project at Valhall. He has also campaigned for years for fundamental changes in land seismic systems which are now coming to fruition. He retired from BP at the end of 2002. Ian is an honorary member of SEG and is a member of EAGE and the PESGB. He was Vice-President of the SEG in 1992-93 and was their inaugural Distinguished Instructor in 1998 with the first course on Time-Lapse Seismic. He has contributed several papers to SEG, EAGE, AAPG, and OTC as well as several workshop and review papers. In “retirement” he consults widely around the industry and continues to teach updated courses on Time Lapse (4D) several times a year.

Mastering 4D Seismic Course Agenda

Day 1

09:00 Arrivals & Registration

09:30 Introduction

  • A brief History of Time-Lapse, 1980-2014, movers & shakers
  • What changes in a reservoir during production?
  • Primary effects
  • Pore pressure
  • Pore fluids
  • Temperature
  • Secondary effects
  • An introduction to the Reservoir Engineer
  • Geological scales and reservoir descriptions
  • Engineers’ data
  • Contribution of IOR methods and Simulator Models
  • Driving forces for 4D
  • Peak Oil.
  • Reserves and additions; energy forecasts
  • Recovery factors
  • A few words about gas
  • CO2 as a driving force for 4D seismic

10:45 Pore fluid properties in reservoirs

  • Which fluid properties do we need to examine
  • Gases
  • Oils
  • Brines
  • Fluid Mixtures

11:45 Rock properties & fluid effects in reservoirs

  • Porosity and Permeability
  • Velocities in porous rocks
  • Compressional waves, shear waves, and moduli
  • Velocity versus Porosity relationships
  • Velocity versus Stress
  • Pore pressure and confining pressure
  • Attenuation and Dispersion
  • Fluid Substitution

12:30 Lunch Break

13:30 From Rocks & Fluids to Seismic and time-lapse Seismic.
Feasibility studies for 4D

  • Bulk density
  • Pressure Depletion
  • Bulk Stiffness
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Gassmann Modelling and Fluid Substitution
  • Moving into the seismic domain
  • Hard Rocks
  • CO2 injection modelling

15:30 Acquisition strategies for 4D

  • Repeatability
  • Repeatability tests on a 3D volume
  • Streamer steering
  • Positioning issues on legacy surveys
  • Infill strategies
  • The physical environment
  • Stability of acquisition parameters
  • Imaging improvements – temporal bandwidth
  • Spatial bandwidth, multi-azimuth, coil
  • Seabed options for 4D
  • Options for permanent reservoir monitoring (PRM)
  • 4D with nodes
  • Some PRM results
  • Decimation tests on a PRM system
  • 4D on land
  • Some pitfalls

17:00 Close

Day 2

09:30 Processing & Interpretation strategies

  • Simple subtraction and matching
  • Matching & cross-equalisation
  • Processing parameter sensitivities
  • Registration, large-scale warping
  • Processing for legacy data
  • Current practice
  • 4D noise attenuation
  • Getting quantitative – 4D inversions, calibration, modelling
  • Compaction, geomechanical models & monitoring
  • Probabilistic Inversions

11:00 Additional & new technologies ,trends, value

  • 4D with gravity, EM, Virtual sources, microseismicity
  • Shear wave 4D
  • Technology trends, new developments
  • Global acceptance of 4D
  • Value of 4D

12:30 Lunch break

13:30 Case histories & interpretations

  • Representative collection of case histories including:

  1. Historical
  2. Data Processing
  3. 4D in Carbonates
  4. Permanent systems
  5. North Sea interpretations (several)
  6. CO2 storage

17:00 Close



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